AMERICAN PIE INTERPRETATIONS

From: rsk@katsuru.circ.upenn.edu (Rich Kulawiec)
Subject: The Annotated "American Pie"
Date: 3 Feb 1995 23:52:23 GMT

This particularly enigmatic song has been discussed at least once a year
since Usenet had a newsgroup for discussing music.  These discussions
frequently repeat themselves, but occasionally introduce new information
and new interpretations.  Having tired of watching the same process repeat
itself for ten years, I've created this, the annotated "American Pie".

This posting consists of: the lyrics to the song (left-justified) with
comments (indented); the chords, for those who'd like to tackle it;
some miscellaneous notes; and references.  Comments are most welcome;
comments backed up with references are *very* welcome.  I have attempted
to note where the interpretation is questionable.

The roots of this posting are in the "Great American Pie" Usenet discussion
of 1983; much of it comes from wombat's (the original wombat, not me)
posting in net.music on June 16, 1985.  As Robert Williams has pointed
out to me, the entire song can be viewed as one big projective test, so
interpretations vary quite a bit.  I've tried to be inclusive while
also indicating which ones I buy into and which I don't; your mileage
may vary.

I must also tip my hat to Cecil Adams, whose "Straight Dope"
columns and books have been a source of joy and information to me since
I discovered them in the Chicago Reader years ago.  If there is any
merit in this article's contents, credit Uncle Cecil for inspiring it.
(And my thanks to Ed Zotti for getting this article mentioned in
the latest S.D. book, "The Return of the Straight Dope".)

Incidentally, gentle reader, you'll find a revision history and credits
at the end of all this; I have a [large] number of pending updates to fold
in, and then I intend to make this a FAQ.

---Rsk 2/3/95


        The entire song is a tribute to Buddy Holly and a commentary on how
        rock and roll changed in the years since his death.  McLean seems to
        be lamenting the lack of "danceable" music in rock and roll and
        (in part) attributing that lack to the absence of Buddy Holly et. al.

(Verse 1)
A long, long time ago...

        "American Pie" reached #1 in the US in 1972, but the album containing
        it was released in 1971. Buddy Holly died in 1959.

I can still remember how
That music used to make me smile.
And I knew if I had my chance,
That I could make those people dance,
And maybe they'd be happy for a while.

        One of early rock and roll's functions was to provide dance music for
        various social events. McLean recalls his desire to become a musician
        playing that sort of music.

But February made me shiver,

        Buddy Holly died on February 3, 1959 in a plane crash in Iowa
        during a snowstorm.

With every paper I'd deliver,

        Don McLean's only job besides being a full-time singer-songwriter
        was being a paperboy.

Bad news on the doorstep...
I couldn't take one more step.
I can't remember if I cried
When I read about his widowed bride

        Holly's recent bride was pregnant when the crash took
        place; she had a miscarriage shortly afterward.

But something touched me deep inside,
The day the music died.

        The same plane crash that killed Buddy Holly also took the lives of
        Richie Valens ("La Bamba") and The Big Bopper ("Chantilly Lace").
        Since all three were so prominent at the time, February 3, 1959
        became known as "The Day The Music Died".


Bye bye Miss American Pie,

        Don McLean dated a Miss America candidate during the pageant.

Drove my Chevy to the levee but the levee was dry
Them good ol' boys were drinkin whiskey and rye
Singing "This'll be the day that I die,
This'll be the day that I die."

        One of Holly's hits was "That'll be the Day"; the chorus contains the
        line "That'll be the day  that I die".

(Verse 2)
Did you write the book of love,

        "The Book of Love" by the Monotones; hit in 1958.

And do you have faith in God above,
If the Bible tells you so?

        In 1955, Don Cornell did a song entitled "The Bible Tells Me So".
        Rick Schubert pointed this out, and mentioned that he hadn't heard
        the song, so it was kinda difficult to tell if it was what McLean
        was referencing.  Anyone know for sure?

        There's also an old Sunday School song which goes:
        "Jesus loves me this I know, for the Bible tells me so"

Now do you believe in rock 'n roll?

        The Lovin' Spoonful had a hit in 1965 with John Sebastian's
        "Do you Believe in Magic?".  The song has the lines:
        "Do you believe in magic" and
        "It's like trying to tell a stranger 'bout rock and roll."

Can music save your mortal soul?
And can you teach me how to dance real slow?

        Dancing slow was an important part of early rock and roll dance
        events -- but declined in importance through the 60's as things
        like psychedelia and the 10-minute guitar solo gained prominence.

Well I know you're in love with him
'Cause I saw you dancing in the gym

        Back then, dancing was an expression of love, and carried a
        connotation of committment.  Dance partners were not so readily
        exchanged as they would be later.

You both kicked off your shoes

        A reference to the beloved "sock hop".  (Street shoes tear up wooden
        basketball floors, so dancers had to take off their shoes.)

Man, I dig those rhythm 'n' blues

        Some history.  Before the popularity of rock and roll, music, like
        much else in the U. S., was highly segregated.  The popular music of
        black performers for largely black audiences was called, first,
        "race music", later softened to rhythm and blues.  In the early 50s,
        as they were exposed to it through radio personalities such as
        Allan Freed, white teenagers began listening, too.  Starting around
        1954, a number of songs from the rhythm and blues charts began
        appearing on the overall popular charts as well, but usually in cover
        versions by established white artists, (e. g.  "Shake Rattle and Roll",
        Joe Turner, covered by Bill Haley; "Sh-Boom", the Chords,
        covered by the Crew-Cuts; "Sincerely", the Moonglows, covered by
        the Mc Guire Sisters; Tweedle Dee, LaVerne Baker, covered by
        Georgia Gibbs).  By 1955, some of the rhythm and blues artists,
        like Fats Domino and Little Richard were able to get records on
        the overall pop charts. In 1956 Sun records added elements of
        country and western to produce the kind of rock and roll tradition
        that produced Buddy Holly. (Thanks to Barry Schlesinger for this
        historical note. ---Rsk)

I was a lonely teenage broncin' buck
With a pink carnation and a pickup truck

        "A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)", was a hit for
        Marty Robbins in 1957. The pickup truck has endured as a symbol of
        sexual independence and potency, especially in a Texas context.
        (Also, Jimmy Buffet does a song about "a white sport coat and a pink
        crustacean". :-) )

But I knew that I was out of luck
The day the music died
I started singing...


(Verse 3)
Now for ten years we've been on our own

        McLean was writing this song in the late 60's, about ten years after
        the crash.

And moss grows fat on a rolling stone

        It's unclear who the "rolling stone" is supposed to be.  It could be
        Dylan, since "Like a Rolling Stone" (1965) was his first major hit;
        and since he was busy writing songs extolling the virtues of simple
        love, family and contentment while staying at home (he didn't tour
        from '66 to '74) and raking in the royalties.  This was quite a
        change from the earlier, angrier Dylan.

        The "rolling stone" could also be Elvis, although I don't think he'd
        started to pork out by the late sixties.

        It could refer to rock and rollers in general, and the changes that
        had taken place in the business in the 60's, especially the huge
        amounts of cash some of them were beginning to make, and the
        relative stagnation that entered the music at the same time.

        Or, perhaps it's a reference to the stagnation in rock and roll.

        Or, finally, it could refer to the Rolling Stones themselves;
        a lot of musicians were angry at the Stones for "selling out".
        Howard Landman points out that John Foxx of Ultravox was sufficiently
        miffed to write a song titled "Life At Rainbow's End (For All The
        Tax Exiles On Main Street)".  The Stones at one point became
        citizens of some other country merely to save taxes.

But that's not how it used to be
When the jester sang for the King and Queen

        The jester is Bob Dylan, as will become clear later. There are several
        interpretations of king and queen: some think that Elvis Presley is
        the king, which seems pretty obvious.  The queen is said to be either
        Connie Francis or Little Richard.  But see the next note.

        An alternate interpretation is that this refers to the Kennedys
        -- the king and queen of "Camelot" -- who were present at a
        Washington DC civil rights rally featuring Martin Luther King.
        (There's a recording of Dylan performing at this rally.)

In a coat he borrowed from James Dean

        In the movie "Rebel Without a Cause", James Dean has a red windbreaker
        that holds symbolic meaning throughout the film (see note at end).
        In one particularly intense scene, Dean lends his coat to a guy who
        is shot and killed; Dean's father arrives, sees the coat on the
        dead man, thinks it's Dean, and loses it.

        On the cover of "The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan", Dylan is wearing just
        such as red windbreaker, and is posed in a street scene similar to
        one shown in a well-known picture of James Dean.

        Bob Dylan played a command performance for the Queen of England.
        He was *not* properly attired, so perhaps this is a reference
        to his apparel.

And a voice that came from you and me

        Bob Dylan's roots are in American folk music, with people like
        Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie. Folk music is by definition the
        music of the masses, hence the "...came from you and me".

Oh, and while the King was looking down
The jester stole his thorny crown

        This could be a reference to Elvis's decline and Dylan's ascendance.
        (i.e. Presley is looking down from a height as Dylan takes his place.)
        The thorny crown might be a reference to the price of fame. Dylan has
        said that he wanted to be as famous as Elvis, one of his early idols.

The courtroom was adjourned,
No verdict was returned.

        This could be the trial of the Chicago Seven.

And while Lennon read a book on Marx,

        Literally, John Lennon reading about Karl Marx; figuratively, the
        introduction of radical politics into the music of the Beatles.
        (Of course, he could be referring to Groucho Marx, but that doesn't
        seem quite consistent with McLean's overall tone. On the other hand,
        some of the wordplay in Lennon's lyrics and books is reminiscint
        of Groucho.) The "Marx-Lennon" wordplay has also been used by others,
        most notably the Firesign Theatre on the cover of their album
        "How Can You Be In Two Places At Once When You're Not Anywhere At All?"
        Also, a famous French witticism was "Je suis Marxiste, tendance
        Groucho."; "I'm a Marxist of the Groucho variety".

The quartet practiced in the park

        There are two schools of thought about this; the obvious one is the
        Beatles playing in Shea Stadium, but note that the previous line has
        John Lennon *doing something else at the same time*.  This tends to
        support the theory that this is a reference to the Weavers, who were
        blacklisted during the McCarthy era.  McLean had become friends with
        Lee Hays of the Weavers in the early 60's while performing in
        coffeehouses and clubs in upstate New York and New York City.
        He was also well-acquainted with Pete Seeger; in fact, McLean,
        Seeger, and others took a trip on the Hudson river singing
        anti-pollution songs at one point.  Seeger's LP "God Bless the Grass"
        contains many of these songs.

And we sang dirges in the dark

        A "dirge" is a funeral or mourning song, so perhaps this is meant
        literally...or, perhaps, this is a reference to some of the new
        "art rock" groups which played long pieces not meant for dancing.

The day the music died.
We were singing...


(Verse 4)
Helter Skelter in a summer swelter

        "Helter Skelter" is a Beatles song which appears on the "white"
        album.  Charles Manson, claiming to have been "inspired" by the
        song (through which he thought God and/or the devil were taking
        to him) led his followers in the Tate-LaBianca murders.

        Is "summer swelter" a reference to the "Summer of
        Love" or perhaps to the "long hot summer" of Watts?

The birds flew off with the fallout shelter
Eight miles high and falling fast

        The Byrd's "Eight Miles High" was on their late 1966 release
        "Fifth Dimension".  It was one of the first records to be widely
        banned because of supposedly drug-oriented lyrics.

It landed foul on the grass

        One of the Byrds was busted for possesion of marijuana.

The players tried for a forward pass

        Obviously a football metaphor, but about what?  It could be
        the Rolling Stones, i.e. they were waiting for an opening which
        really didn't happen until the Beatles broke up.

With the jester on the sidelines in a cast

        On July 29, 1966, Dylan crashed his Triumph 55 motorcycle while
        riding near his home in Woodstock, New York.  He spent nine months
        in seclusion while recuperating from the accident.

Now the halftime air was sweet perfume

        Drugs, man.

        Well, now, wait a minute; that's probably too obvious.  It's possible
        that this line and the next few refer to the 1968 Democratic National
        Convention.  The "sweet perfume" is probably tear gas.

While sergeants played a marching tune

        Following from the thought above, the sergeants would be the Chicago
        Police and the Illinois National Guard, who marched the protestors
        out of the park and into jail.

        Alternatively, this could refer to the Beatles' "Sgt. Pepper's
        Lonely Hearts Club Band".  Or, perhaps McLean refers to the
        Beatles' music in general as "marching" because it's not music
        for dancing.  Or, finally, the "marching tune" could be the draft.

We all got up to dance
Oh, but we never got the chance

        The Beatles' 1966 Candlestick Park concert only lasted 35 minutes.

        Or, following on from the previous comment, perhaps
        he meant that there wasn't any music to dance to.

'Cause the players tried to take the field,
The marching band refused to yield.

        Following on from the Chicago reference above, this could be another
        comment on protests.  If the players are the protestors at Kent
        State, and the marching band the Ohio National Guard...

        This could be a reference to the dominance of the Beatles on the rock
        and roll scene.  For instance, the Beach Boys released "Pet Sounds"
        in 1966 -- an album which featured some of the same sort of studio
        and electronic experimentation as "Sgt. Pepper" (1967) -- but the album
        sold poorly.

        Some folks think this refers to either the 1968
        Deomcratic Convention or Kent State.

        This might also be a comment about how the dominance of the Beatles
        in the rock world led to more "pop art" music, leading in turn
        to a dearth of traditional rock and roll.

        Or finally, this might be a comment which follows up on the earlier
        reference to the draft: the government/military-industrial-complex
        establishment refused to accede to the demands of the peace movement.

Do you recall what was revealed,
The day the music died?
We started singing


(Verse 5)
And there we were all in one place


A generation lost in space

        Some people think this is a reference to the US space program,
        which it might be; but that seems a bit too literal.  Perhaps this
        is a reference to hippies, who were sometimes known as the
        "lost generation", partially because of their particularly acute
        alientation from their parents, and partially because of their
        presumed preoccupation with drugs.

        It could also be a reference to the awful TV
        show, "Lost in Space", whose title was sometimes
        used as a synonym for someone who was rather high...
        but I keep hoping that McLean had better taste. :-)

With no time left to start again

        The "lost generation" spent too much time being stoned, and had wasted
        their lives?   Or, perhaps, their preference for psychedelia had pushed
        rock and roll so far from Holly's music that it couldn't be retrieved.

So come on Jack be nimble Jack be quick

        Probably a reference to Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones;
        "Jumpin' Jack Flash" was released in May, 1968.

Jack Flash sat on a candlestick

        The Stones' Candlestick park concert? (unconfirmed)

'Cause fire is the devil's only friend

        It's possible that this is a reference to
        the Grateful Dead's "Friend of the Devil".

        An alternative interpretation of the last four lines is that they
        may refer to Jack Kennedy and his quick decisions during the
        Cuban Missile Crisis; the candlesticks/fire refer to ICBMs
        and nuclear war.

And as I watched him on the stage
My hands were clenched in fists of rage
No angel born in hell
Could break that satan's spell

        While playing a concert at the Altamont Speedway in 1968, the Stones
        appointed members of the Hell's Angels to work security (on the
        advice of the Grateful Dead).  In the darkness near the front of the
        stage, a young man named Meredith Hunter was beaten and stabbed to
        death -- by the Angels.  Public outcry that the song "Sympathy for
        the Devil" had somehow incited the violence caused the Stones to
        drop the song from their show for the next six years.   This incident
        is chronicled in the documentary film "Gimme Shelter".

        It's also possible that McLean views the Stones as being negatively
        inspired (remember, he had an extensive religious background) by
        virtue of "Sympathy for the Devil", "Their Satanic Majesties' Request"
        and so on.  I find this a bit puzzling, since the early Stones
        recorded a lot of "roots" rock and roll, including Buddy Holly's
        "Not Fade Away".

And as the flames climbed high into the night
To light the sacrificial rite

        The most likely interpretation is that McLean is still talking
        about Altamont, and in particular Mick Jagger's prancing and posing
        while it was happening.  The sacrifice is Meredith Hunter, and the
        bonfires around the area provide the flames.

        (It could be a reference to Jimi Hendrix burning his Stratocaster
        at the Monterey Pop Festival, but that was in 1967 and this verse
        is set in 1968.)

I saw satan laughing with delight

        If the above is correct, then Satan would be Jagger.

The day the music died
He was singing...


(Verse 6)
I met a girl who sang the blues

        Janis Joplin.

And I asked her for some happy news
But she just smiled and turned away

        Janis died of an accidental heroin overdose on October 4, 1970.

I went down to the sacred store
Where I'd heard the music years before

        There are two interpretations of this: The "sacred store" was
        Bill Graham's Fillmore West, one of the great rock and roll venues
        of all time. Alternatively, this refers to record stores, and their
        longtime (then discontinued) practice of allowing customers to
        preview records in the store.  (What year did the Fillmore West

        It could also refer to record stores as "sacred" because this is where
        one goes to get "saved".
        (See above lyric "Can music save your mortal soul?")

But the man there said the music wouldn't play

        Perhaps he means that nobody is interested in hearing Buddy Holly
        et.al.'s music?  Or, as above, the discontinuation of the in-store
        listening booths.

And in the streets the children screamed

        "Flower children" being beaten by police and National Guard troops;
        in particular, perhaps, the People's Park riots in Berkeley in
        1969 and 1970.

The lovers cried and the poets dreamed

        The trend towards psychedelic music in the 60's?

But not a word was spoken
The church bells all were broken

        It could be that the broken bells are the dead musicians: neither can
        produce any more music.

And the three men I admire most
The Father Son and Holy Ghost

        Holly, The Big Bopper, and Valens
        -- or --
        Hank Williams, Presley and Holly
        -- or --
        JFK, Martin Luther King, and Bobby Kennedy
        -- or --
        or the Catholic aspects of the deity.
        McLean had attended several Catholic schools.

They caught the last train for the coast

        Could be a reference to wacky California religions, or could just be
        a way of saying that they've left (or died -- western culture often
        uses "went west" as a synonym for dying). Or, perhaps this is a
        reference to the famous "God is Dead" headline in the New York Times.
        David Cromwell has suggested that this is an oblique reference to
        a line in Procol Harum's "Whiter Shade of Pale", but I'm not sure
        I buy that; for one thing, all of McLean's musical references are
        to much older "roots" rock and roll songs; and secondly, I think it's
        more likely that this line shows up in both songs simply because it's
        a common cultural metaphor.

The day the music died

        This tends to support the conjecture that the "three
        men" were Holly/Bopper/Valens, since this says that
        they left on the day the music died.

And they were singing...

Refrain (2x)

Chords to the song:

The song appears to be in G; the chords are:

 Intro:  G     Bm/F# Em    .     Am    .     C     .
         Em    .     D     .     .     .
         G     Bm/F# Em    .     Am    .     C     .
         Em    .     A     .     D     .     .     .
         Em    .     Am    .     Em    .     Am    .
         C     G/B   Am    .     C     .     D     .
         G     Bm/F# Em    .     Am    .     C     .
         G     Bm/F# Em    .     Am    .     D     .
         G     .     C     .     G     .     D     .

 Chorus: G     .     C     .     G     .     D     .
         G     .     C     .     G     .     D     .
         G     .     C     .     G     .     D     .

         Em    .     .     .     A     .     .     .   (all but
         Em    .     .     .     D     .     .     .    last chorus)

         C     .     D     .     G     C     G     .   (last chorus)

Other notes:

"Killing Me Softly With His Song", Roberta Flack's Grammy Award-winning
single of 1973, was written by Charles Gimble and Norman Fox about McLean.

The Big Bopper's real name was J.P. Richardson.  He was a DJ for a
Texas radio station who had one very big novelty hit, the very well
known "Chantilly Lace".  There was a fourth person who was going to
ride the plane.  There was room for three, ahd the fourth person lost
the toss -- or should I say won the toss.  His name is Waylon
Jennings...and to this day he refuses to talk about the crash.
( Jennings was the bass player for Holly's band at the time.  Some people
say that Holly had chartered the plane for his band, but that Valens
and/or Richardson was sick that night and asked to take the place of
the band members.)

About the "coat he borrowed from James Dean": James Dean's red
windbreaker is important throughout the film, not just at the end.
When he put it on, it meant that it was time to face the world, time to
do what he thought had to be done, and other melodramatic but
thoroughly enjoyable stuff like that.  The week after the movie came
out, virtually every clothing store in the U.S. was sold out
of red windbreakers.  Remember that Dean's impact was similar
to Dylan's: both were a symbol for the youth of their time, a reminder
that they had something to say and demanded to be listened to.

American Pie is supposed to be the name of the plane that crashed,
containing the three guys that died. (Reported by Ronald van Loon
from the discussion on American Pie, autumn 1991, on rec.music.folk)

Dan Stanley mentioned an interesting theory involving all of this;
roughly put, he figures that if Holly hadn't died, then we would not
have suffered through the Fabian/Pat Boone/et.al. era...and as a consequence,
we wouldn't have *needed* the Beatles -- Holly was moving pop music away
from the stereotypical boy/girl love lost/found lyrical ideas, and was
recording with unique instrumentation and techniques...things that Beatles
wouldn't try until about 1965.  Perhaps Dylan would have stuck with the
rock and roll he played in high school, and the Byrds never would have
created an amalgam of Dylan songs and Beatle arrangements.

Lynn Gold tells me that  "Life" magazine carried an annotated version
of American Pie when the song came out; does anybody have a copy?
If so, please contact me, because I'd love to see it.

Still other :-) notes:

Andrew Whitman brings a sense of perspective to all of this by noting:

>As to what they threw off the bridge, Bobbie Gentry once went on record with
>the statement that it was the mystery that made the song, and that the mystery
>would remain unsolved.  Don McLean later used the same device to even greater
>success with "American Pie," which triggered a national obsession on figuring
>out the "real meaning" of the song.

Well, probably not a national obsession, but certainly the life's work
of many talented scholars.  According to the latest edition of the
"American Pie Historical Interpretive Digest" (APHID), noted McLean
historian Vincent Vandeman has postulated that cheezy country
songs may have played a much more prominent role in the epic
composition than had originally been thought.  In particular, the
"widowed bride," usually supposed to be either Ella Holly or
Joan Rivers, may in fact be Billie Jo.  According to this radical
exegesis, the "pink carnation" of McLean's song is probably what
was thrown off the Tallahatchie Bridge, and was later found by
the lonely, teenaged McLean as he wandered drunkenly on the levee.

Of course, such a view poses problems.  McLean vehemently denies any
knowledge of Choctaw Ridge, and any theory linking the two songs
must surely address this mysterious meeting place of Billie Jo and
her husband Billy Joe.  Vandeman speculates that Choctaw Ridge may
have been the place McLean drove his Chevy after drinking whiskey
and rye, and that McLean may have been unaware of the name because
of his foggy mental state.  Still, there appear to be many tenuous
connections in Vandeman's interpretation - Tammy Wynette as the
girl who sang the blues, the proposed affair between Wynette and
Billie Joe which later led to d-i-v-o-r-c-e and Billy Joe's
suicide, the mysterious whereabouts of George Jones, and why
McLean insisted on driving a Chevy to the levee instead of a more
economical Japanese car.

My own view is that none of it makes much sense.  Vandeman's theory
is intriguing, but it seems far more logical to hold to the traditional
interpretation of "American Pie" as an eschatological parable of
nuclear destruction and the rebirth of civilization on Alpha Centauri.

[ Thanks, Andrew.  I'll take it under advisement. ;-) ---Rsk ]


Billboard Book of Number One Hits, by Fred Bronson, Billboard, 1985.

Encyclopedia of Pop, Rock and Soul, revised edition, by Irwin Stambler,
St. Martin's Press, 1989.

Return of the Straight Dope, by Cecil Adams, Ballatine Books, 1994, p.398.

Rock Chronicle, by Dan Formento, Delilah/Putnam, 1982.

Rock Day by Day, by Steve Smith and the Diagram Group, Guiness Books, 1987.

Rock Topicon, by Dave Marsh, Sandra Choron and Debbie Geller,
Contemporary Books, 1984.

Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, ed. by Jon Pareles and
Patricia Romanowski, Rolling Stone Press/Summit Books, 1983.

Rolling Stone Record Guide, ed. by Dave Marsh with John Swenson, Random
House/Rolling Stone Press, 1979.

The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, by Todd Gitlin, Bantam Book, 1987.

Smiling Through the Apocalypse: Esquire's History of the Sixties, ed. by
Harold Hayes, Esquire Press, 1987.

It was Twenty Years ago Today: An Anniversary Celebration of 1967, by
Derek Taylor, Fireside, 1987.

Don Wegeng mentioned that some of his comments came from an interpretation
broadcast by radio station WIFE (AM) in Indianapolis, which was the most
popular station in Indy when American Pie was a hit.

Credits, in rough chronological order:

        (The names of these first few are lost in the mists of the
        heady early days of Usenet.  If they'd like to step forward,
        I'd be happy to add their real names to their !-land addresses.)
        iws@rayssdb.ray.com (Ihor W. Slabicky)
        tugs@csri.toronto.edu (Stephen Hull)
        dko@calmasd.ge.com (Dan O'Neill)
        ssm@calmasd.ge.com (Sharon McBroom)
        mfterman@phoenix.princeton.edu (Martin Terman)
        rsk@gynko.circ.upenn.edu (Rich Kulawiec)
        tim@tcom.stc.co.uk (Tim Kennedy)
        rns@tortuga.sandiego.ncr.com (Rick Schubert)
        paul@moore.com (Paul Maclauchlan)
        rvloon@cv.ruu.nl (Ronald van Loon)
        wirth@sdsc.edu (Colleen Wirth)
        nelson@berlioz.nsc.com (Taed Nelson)
        bschlesinger@nssdca.gsfc.nasa.gov (Barry Schlesinger)
        Thomas.Sullivan@cs.cmu.edu (Tom Sullivan)
        H.Edwards@massey.ac.nz (Howard Edwards)
        gerry@macadam.mpce.mq.edu.au (Gerry Myerson)
        dave@jato.jpl.nasa.gov (Dave Hayes)
        rlwilliams@gallua.bitnet (Robert L. Williams)
        bee@ms.uky.edu (Elizabeth Gilliam)
        chris@gandalf.ca (Chris Sullivan)
        dtpilkey@mailbox.syr.edu (David T. Pilkey)
        Dan Stanley at Fitchburg State College (courtesy of
                Timothy J. Stanley, tjs@z.eecs.umich.edu)
        lgold@cadence.com (Lynn Gold)
        ajw@cbnews.cb.att.com (Andrew J. Whitman)
        landman@hal.com (Howard Landman)
        wegeng@eso.mc.xerox.com (Don Wegeng)
        al@jupiter.nmt.edu (Al Stavely)
        David (D.C.) Cromwell

Revision history:

        1/20/92 Constructed from various old postings
        1/27/92 Added comments from Usenetters on first draft
        2/3/92  More comments folded in; reposted today, the
                anniversary of The Day the Music Died
        8/18/92 Added comments generated by the Februrary posting.
        1/3/93  Caught up on lots of updates that have been languishing
                in my inbound mail queue for months.
        4/2/93  Rearranged much of the text, incorporated more feedback
                from readers, and move the credits and history to the end.
        2/3/95  Reposted again on the day the music died, even though
                many of the changes aren't in yet.

Copyright Rich Kulawiec 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995.

Member AWA, USCKT, ACA, NORS, American Rivers, WVRC, NCNR, POWR, AMC,
and the Lehigh, Conewago, Keystone, Lancaster and Harrisburg Canoe Clubs.

   January 25, 1995